When designing a staircase there are 6 basic components, they are Stringers, Treads, Risers, Newels, Winders and Landings, Handrail’s and Balusters.
Strings – The inclined boards in which the treads and risers are enclosed.
Tread – The top or horizontal surface of a step.
Riser – The board that forms the face of the step. The maximum individual rise for domestic flights is 220mm.
Newel Cap – The ornamental top of the newel post. Often carved shaped or turned.
Landing – A resting place, or wide step anywhere within the staircase or top of a flight of stairs. Landings are often used to change the direction of a stair.
Handrail – A protective rail designed to prevent people or objects from falling into an open stairwell. A moulded rail following the pitch, or rake of the staircase – which also forms the top/upper edge of the balustrading.
Baluster – The vertical member, plain or decorative, that acts as the infill between the handrail and Channel (or tread if cut string).